By Henny Klein
Adverbs of measure shape an exciting a part of the lexicon: a number of, multiform and everchanging. additionally they exhibit a good style in distribution. during this learn, the features of adverbs of measure are investigated from a semantic standpoint. the focus is on Dutch, yet past stories approximately English and German adverbs of measure are used to match with and to construct on.
The e-book begins with an advent on grading and gradability, and a type of the adverbs in accordance with the measure they show. subsequent, the various lexical assets from which the adverbs emerge and the method of grammaticalization are mentioned. the most a part of the publication is dedicated to semantic regulations at the use of adverbs of measure, at the one hand regulations in regards to the converted parts, nonetheless these about the atmosphere. themes comprise absoluteness as opposed to gradability, confident as opposed to destructive review, the strengthening of negation, polarity sensitivity, the logical houses of the adverbs themselves, and regulations to reduplication and stacking.
Besides the most textual content, 3 case reviews are awarded during which the pecularities of a few of the adverbs are investigated extensive, to teach extra intimately to complexities in their distribution. The appendix supplies an summary of Dutch adverbs of measure.
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Additional resources for Adverbs of Degree in Dutch and Related Languages
48) a. Ze is 'She is b. Het is 'It is echt/ absoluut/ beslist really/ absolutely/ positively echt/ absoluut/ beslist really/ absolutely/ positively aardig nice' noodzakelijk necessary' 48 CHAPTER 2 However, as demonstrated in table 5, as a degree modifier absoluut and beslist modify only absolute expressions, whereas echt prefers gradable expressions. 19 (49) a. Het is een She is a b. echte/ absolute/ *besliste real/ absolute/ decided schat darling noodzaak necessity According to van Os, in the test frame He is not ...
35) Jaap is even doortrapt als oud Jaap is equally cunning as old 'Jaap is as cunning as he is old' Some comparisons, finally, are only made for the sake of intensifica tion. Examples are phrases such as as good as they make them or as happy 44 CHAPTER 2 as could be, and extreme, often idiomatic, comparisons, as exemplified in (36). The English examples are from Kirchner (1955: 108-9). (36) a. Ze is zo gek als een deur She is as mad as a door b. I'm dispensable like mad c. 18 In particular the many forms in which even can be used to grade may already justify calling it an adverb of degree.
Ik vind haar niets aardig I find her nothing nice 'I don't like her at all' b. Ik vind haar niks niet aardig I find her nothing not nice 'I don't like her at all' THE ORIGIN (18) 37 Ik heb daar niets geen problemen mee I have there nothing no problems with 'I don't have any problems with that' Iets, wat and ietwat 'something, somewhat' Ietwat 'somewhat' was originally a pleonastic combination of iet (the medieval precursor of iets 'something') and wat 'something/somewhat'. Nowadays, ietwat, like wat, can be used as an adverb of minimal degree (19a).