By F Haverfield
Historic Town-Planning through F. Haverfield - The artwork of Laying Out cities. Town-planning—the paintings of laying out cities with due deal with the health and wellbeing and luxury of population, for business and advertisement potency, and for affordable fantastic thing about buildings—is an artwork of intermittent job. It belongs to important a long time and situations. For its complete unfolding stipulations are wanted. The age has to be one during which, even if via development, or via events of inhabitants, cities are being freely based or freely enlarged, and nearly as an issue in fact realization is interested in tools of arranging and laying out such cities. And secondly, the developers of those cities should have wit sufficient to deal with the health of universal males and the due association of normal dwellings. That has now not regularly occurred. in lots of lands and centuries—in a long time the place civilization has been tinged via an under-current of barbarism—one or either one of those stipulations were absent. In Asia in the course of a lot of its historical past, in early Greece, in Europe through the first 1/2 the center a long time, cities have consisted of 1 or dominant structures, temple or church or fortress, of 1 or processional avenues for worshippers at sacred gala's, and a bit adjoining chaos of tortuous lanes and squalid homes. Architects have devised attractive structures in such cities. yet they've got no longer touched the chaos or taken care of the complete inhabited quarter as one unit. Town-planning has been right here unknown.
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Within the walls were an amphitheatre, a theatre, public baths, a structure covering nearly 2 acres and interpreted as a granary or (perhaps more correctly) as a cistern, and private houses as yet unexplored. Beneath the chief streets were sewers, by which indeed these streets were mainly traced. FIG. 16. AOSTA The whole was divided by a regular network of streets into rectangular blocks. According to the latest plan of the site, there were sixteen blocks, nearly identical in shape and averaging 145 x 180 yds.
Only a tiny part has been uncovered. But the excavators have not hesitated to complete their results conjecturally into a rectangular town-plan, with streets crossing at right angles and oblong blocks of houses measuring from 158 to 176 yds. in length and 37 or 44 or 71 yds. in width (fig. 12). The whole must have been laid out at once, and the smaller remains seem to show that this was done by Etruscans.  Further excavation is, however, needed to confirm this generally accepted interpretation of the place.
Even in late Republican times the gloomy mass of the Tabularium and the temples of the Capitol must have towered above the Forum in no mere accidental stateliness, and imperial Rome contained many buildings in many quarters to show that it was the capital of an Empire. But for town-planning we must go elsewhere. The sources of our knowledge are twofold. In a few cases archaeological excavation has laid bare the paving of Roman streets or the foundation of Roman house-blocks. More often mediaeval and modern streets seem to follow ancient lines and the ancient town-plan, or a part of it, survives in use to-day.